Knowing some symptoms and first aid techniques is the smallest thing that we can do in order to secure ourselves and our nearest and dearest.
Bright Side collected for you the most effective first aid and survival techniques, as well as facts that can help you figure out how to act properly. We hope you’ll never need to use them in your lives, but it’s better to be safe than sorry.
1. What to do if you choke
If you are choking, first of all, stay calm. Start coughing heavily. If it doesn’t work, hit yourself with your fist in the area between the bellybutton and the bottom of your ribs, performing a J-movement up and down. If this doesn’t help as well, set your body against a chair (or any other object at your waist level) and press against it holding your hands in front of you. Repeat this maneuver until the foreign object comes out.
The 2nd variant
Quickly stand on your elbows and knees, throw your arms forward, and fall on the floor with your chest and stomach. It is painful, but it may save your life.
2. How to tell the time using the sun
If you need to know the time and your watch is broken and the cell is discharged, you can use the following method:
- Find a place with a good sun and horizon visibility.
- Put your hands together as shown in the picture, and hold them still.
- Count the number of fingers from the sun up to the horizon line. Each finger equals 15 minutes before sunset. Multiply the number of fingers by 15 and you’ll find out approximately what time it is (as this method is not 100% precise).
3. How to recognize that a big thunderstorm is approaching
If you think that a big thunderstorm is about to start, pay attention to the following details:
- The clouds are low.
- The clouds aren’t flat, but, rather, cumulus and “fluffy”.
- They are dark, even dark brown. If the clouds are black, there will be heavy rain with no wind. If the clouds are brown, there will be rain with strong wind.
If the clouds are going away, it means there will be no rain.
4. What to do if the car’s brakes don’t work
If your brakes refuse to work, don’t panic: ask the passengers (if you’re not alone) to buckle up their seatbelts, turn on the emergency lights, and let other drivers know what’s happening by using long-range lights and your car horn:
- Press the brake pedal with strong and abrupt moves. This is how you can create pressure in the braking system. Then, downshift slowly. If you have a mechanic gearbox, press the clutch pedal. If you have an automatic gearbox, put the gearshift into the L-position.
- Use manual brakes carefully. If you do it suddenly, the car may start drifting.
- Try to turn right and left going from one row to another.
5. What to do if you are being followed
If you feel that someone is following you, first of all, make sure it’s true. Memorize the way that person looks and suddenly change your direction. If that person is still behind you, don’t go to places without people. Go to a café since you can pretend that you are meeting a friend. It is also a good idea to go directly to a police station.
6. How not to wander in circles in a forest
If you feel that you are walking in circles in a forest, try to pass big distinct trees from one and the same side. If you’re right-handed, choose the left side. If you’re left-handed, choose the right side. This will help you avoid walking in circles.
7. What to do in the first seconds of a heart attack
If you feel like you or anyone around you are having a heart attack, immediately call an ambulance. Try not to panic before doctors come. Ask the ambulance operator what medicine to take. Before you take them, start breathing deeply and coughing. Deep breathing brings oxygen into the lungs and coughing stimulates the chest, helping to restore the cardiac rhythm and hold on until the ambulance comes.
The location of chest pain can help spot a heart attack
One more sign to spot a heart attack: a gray ring around the cornea
This goes hand in hand with a high cholesterol level in the bood which means that there’s an increased risk for a heart attack and a stroke. A person whose eyes look in a similar way should necessarily consult a doctor.
8. An interesting way to start a fire
In case you don’t have anything with which to start a fire, you may use a condom and sunlight. Put some water into the contraceptive, tie it up, and use it as a lens, focusing the light on a piece of paper or dry grass. Just be patient and everything will work out.
9. How to be safe during hiking
If you are going hiking, make sure that some of your closest friends or family know where you are going, what places you are going to visit, and when you are planning to return. It will be perfect to leave a plan of your hike with a specialist who knows well the area to which you’re heading.
10. Where to hide during an earthquake
Contrary to popular belief, during an earthquake, you shouldn’t hide in a doorway. It’s better to hide near some massive objects; however, make sure that it won’t fall to your side. Lie down near it in the fetal position.
11. How to get out of the crowd
If you find yourself alone in a center of an unruly crowd, don’t cross the direction of the crowd. All you need to do is to carefully move together with the crowd, leaning towards one of the sides. The main thing is to move accurately and slowly without blocking someone else’s way because in this case you may be pushed or taken to the ground. If you are with your family, put the child on your shoulders and let the woman go in front of you in order to control the movement. Move in a diagonal direction.
12. How to make a first aid bandage
The first minutes after an accident takes place and before the ambulance comes are extremely important.
A correct bandage can even save a person’s life. Here are some bandaging tips for different situations.
A broken limb should be immobilized before the ambulance comes. An arm sling tied around the neck holds an arm in a fixed position and serves as a warning to others that the person has an injury.
This type of bandage would be helpful in case of a knee injury in order to immobilize the joint. You can use elastic roller bandage for this type of injury.
This type of bandage can be used in case of a chest injury or a clavicle fracture.
This type of bandage is called a figure-eight bandage. It is used in order to immobilize smaller joints or to treat an injury.
13. If someone is unconscious
If a person around you is unconscious and breathing, call the ambulance, but before that do the following in order to ensure the security of the person:
- Tilt the person’s head back gently- the mouth will open slightly as you do this.
- Lift the chin, and listen if the person is actually breathing. Check the breath for 10 seconds.
- Kneel down next to the person and move him or her on their side, putting one hand under the cheek as it is seen in the picture.
Important: if you suspect a spinal injury, do not move the person. Open his or her mouth gently without moving the neck.
Bonus: The places on the human body that are bitten most often
We sincerely hope that you’ll avoid dangerous situations in your life, but it’s better to be prepared beforehand. Maybe you also know some effective survival tips? Share them with us in the comments. Who knows, maybe your tip will save someone’s life!
Иллюстратор Sergey Raskovalov for Bright Side